According to DNV GL, ships and offshore structures are increasingly dependent on programmable control systems.
These integrated and networked solutions provide an ever-larger target for cyber threats, DNV GL said.
“In theory, all programmable components may be exposed to cyber threats, be it machinery, navigation or communication systems.”
Cybersecurity in the maritime and offshore industry was up for discussion at this year’s CMA Shipping event during a session with the US Coast Guard, ship owners and class representatives.
In the past, critical network segments onboard vessels used to be kept isolated. This has changed a lot recently. “Ships and offshore structures are becoming more and more interconnected,” said Tor E. Svensen, CEO DNV GL – Maritime, when taking the stage at this year’s CMA (Connecticut Maritime Association) event in Stamford, CT. “In theory, all programmable components may be exposed to cyber threats, be it machinery, navigation or communication systems.”
“This is a weak spot,” says Svensen. “There are many ways something can go wrong with the systems or software – be it caused by technical or human error, or cyber criminals.” According to Svensen, cyber-attacks pose an additional risk of someone with evil intent exploiting already existing vulnerabilities. The industry has seen its first cyber events, e.g. the manipulation of AIS, ECDIS and GPS data. Just last year, more than 50 cyber security incidents were detected in the Norwegian energy and oil and gas sector.
There is already a lot that can be done today to improve protection against cyber-attacks: “At DNV GL, we have always favored a risk-based approach and also advocate this to reduce cyber risks,” Svensen said. He also recommended that asset owners and operators should consider cybersecurity self-assessments, third-party assessments, audits, testing and verification, and suggested that such requirements could also be implemented into future regulations.
Cybersecurity audits or “health checks” are starting points. With a combination of so-called Hardware In-the-Loop (HIL) and cybersecurity testing, DNV GL’s Marine Cybernetics unit offers tests addressing typical threats such as network storms and penetrations, password attacks, disconnections and communication failures.
Focusing on the integration of software dependent systems, DNV GL introduced its own Integrated Software Dependent Systems (ISDS) standard in 2009. Originally developed for the offshore industry and enhanced ever since, ISDS helps ensure that the integrated and stand-alone control-systems of a vessel perform reliably and safely. ISDS requirements are ensuring quality control throughout the development process, which means the resulting systems are more robust by design.
“If you have already taken care of software integrity, installed data protection and assessed the risks e.g. with HIL testing or ISDS, you are in a good position to take the next step in improving cybersecurity.”
Recently, DNV GL has provided comments to the USCG on “Guidance on Maritime Cybersecurity Standards,” drawing on DNV GL’s competence and cross industry cyber security knowledge in the Maritime, Oil & Gas and Energy industries. “If regulating authorities such as the USCG define cybersecurity requirements, DNV GL is well positioned to contribute to regulations, and to establish rules, class notations, recommended practices and guidelines,” Tor E. Svensen promised.